Colin Macleod: Colin MacLeod was also born in Canada but much later than Avery in 1909. Like his two peers, MacLeod was extremely intelligent and motivated and he enrolled in McGill University at the age of 16. Only a few years later, when he was 23, MacLeod earned his medical degree and in 1941 joined Avery at Rockefeller University. Their formation of “The Transforming Principle” stemmed in the studies of pneumonia-causing strains of bacteria. The pair found that they could convert normal rough (R) strains of pneumonia to the dangerous smooth (S) strains. A year later, in 1942, McCarty joined their work and their work subsequently led to the identification as DNA as the transforming principle just another year later. Despite the scientific significance of their discovery, the three were never awarded a Nobel Peace Prize.-M. Bio
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