In the spring of 1994 the tiny African nation of Rwanda exploded onto the international media stage, as internal strife reached genocidal proportions. But the horror that unfolded before our eyes had been building steadily for years before it captured the attention of the world. In ,... read more
Map of Rwanda
1. Rwandese Society and the Colonial Impact: The Making of a Cultural Mythology (1894-1959)
The physical setting
The Tutsi, the Hutu and the Abazungu
Myths and realities of pre-colonial Rwanda
-The dynamics of Rwandese history
The colonial impact
-The 'Rwandese ideology'
2. The Hutu Republic (1959-1990)
The 1959 muyaga and its consequenses
The Kayibanda years (1961-1973)
The Refugee problem
-The question of numbers
-Life in the diaspora
-The Ugandan factor
The Habyarimana regime
-The good years
-The atmosphere of the regime
-The RPF prepares for war
3. Civil War and Foreign Intervention (October 1990-July 1991)
The RPF strike and the first days of fighting
Settling down into a war culture
The reorganisation of the RPF
The advent of multiparty politics
4. Slouching towards Democracy (July 1991-June 1992)
The problems of democratisation
War and violence as parts of the political process
The new multiparty cabinet and the opening of peace negotiations
Hardliners, democrats and warriors in the Hutu/Tutsi context
5. The Arusha Peace Marathon (June 1992-August 1993)
The economic situation
Peace and its enemies
Negotiations feed the rise of extremism
The February war and its aftermath
Peace through exhaustion
6. Chronicle of a massacre foretold (4 August 1993-6 April 1994)
Waiting for UNAMIR
Ndadye's murder: the shock and its explanation
Hanging on to the cliff's edge
7. Genocide and renewed war (6 April-14 June 1994)
The enigma of President Habyarimana's death
The second week of April 1994
-Who were the organisers?
-Who were the killers?
-Who were the victims?
-Were there any bystanders?
-Patterns of killing
-Complexities of the situation
-How long did it last?
-How many were killed?
From the outside looking in
8. 'Operation Turquoise' and Gotterdammerung in Central Africa (14 June-21 August 1994)
Deciding and preparing for the intervention (14-23 June)
From the intervention to the fall of Kigali (23 June-4 July)
The fall of the northwest and the refugee explosion (4-19 July)
The new government and the cholera apocalypse (19 July-1 August)
'Turquoise is going away, the problems remain' (1-21 August)
9. Aftermath or new beginning? (22 August-31 December 1994)
The new refugee problem
Reconstruction and internal security
What sort of political structure?
The attitude of the international community
Towards a provisional conclusion
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